Chandraguptha Maurya was the founder of the Mourya empire in India. He can be described as the first emperor of India in a true sense. He brought the fragmented kingdoms of the old India under his throne and established a uniform system of administration. Chandraguptha Maurya was an young man who was not the king of any state but raised to the power as the Emperor of the whole India by his determination, intelligence and hard work.
During the reign of Chandraguptha Mourya his empire spanned from Assam and Bengal in the east to Afghan and Balochisthan in the west to Kashmir and Nepal in the North to Deccan Plateau in the south. Now we are going to discuss about that great son of Bihar who was the first emperor of the India.
Chandraguptha mourya was born in 340 B.C. There is much conflicts about his ancestry . According to some scholars he was the illegitimate son of a Nanda King. In another opinion he is believed to be born in the clan of Moriyas which is a Kshatriya clan. He was brought up in a common way by his mother. He was born in Magatha, in today's Bihar.
It is also not much known about his early life. His abilities were recognized by the Chanakya, a teacher in Takshashila university. Chanakya was the former minister of Nanda Kingdom who was expelled from his job. When he found Chandraguptha Maurya with great warrior ability and leadership qualities, he considered him the suitable person to carry out his revenge against the Nandas. He took Chandragupta to Takshashila where Chandragupta completed his education.
Foundation of Maurya empire
Chanakya played a great role in the formation and flourishing of the Maurya empire. He was the one who planted the thoughts of a strong empire in the mind of Chandraguptha Maurya. Chandraguptha with the help of a group of young men organized a mass appraisal against the Nanda rule. When the Maurya empire came into existence and the Chanakya became the first Prime minister or adviser of the king.
Chandraguptha Maurya defeated the Macedonian satisfies in 317 B.C Thereafter he concentrated on north western India. He made an alliance with Himalayan king Parvathka and launched attack against the Dhana Nanda of the Nanda empire. The battle ended around 321 B.C and Chandraguptha captured the Kusumapura the capital of Nanda Empire and also the whole of the Nanda empire. Thus was born the powerful Maurya Empire in Northern India.
He also led war against the Selucius of persia, who was defeated in the war and forced to agree to a treaty with Chandraguptha Maurya. According to the treaty Chandraguptha got the regions upto Hindu Kush(Present day Afghanisthan) of Persian Empire. Chandraguptha also married a daughter of Selucius.
After defeating selucius he concentrated on the southern India. He crossed the Vindhya Ranges and conquered the Deccan Plateau. Thus a large part of South Asia came under the administration of Chandraguptha Maurya.
The Mauryan administrative system had King on the top and the the administration was controlled by the able hands of Chandraguptha Maurya. The whole administration and government affairs were based on the system of hierarchy and centralization.Loads of officials were employed to make sure that the process of administration is smooth and perfect. Taxes were collected on the regular basis and it was made sure that the people get enough help in case of any natural hazards.
There were officials in every areas to look after the problems of the people at grass root level. So the whole administrative system was efficient and effective.
In his last days he gave up his throne and adopted Jainism, under the Jain saint, Bhadrabahu Swami and died in Sravanabelagola in Karnataka by fasting. There is a cave temple still there marking his death.
Chandraguptha Maurya was succeeded by Bindusara who gave birth to Ashoka- The Great who became the most powerful king of Indian Subcontinent.